How do you tell a search engine what your standardized URL is

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URL standardization" URL standardization "is a gerund, not good direct explanation, I put it in reverse.

what is a standardized URL? In many cases, we think the following links point to the same page (home page):

www.example.com

example.com/

www.example.com/index.html

example.com/index.php

, but the process of sending requests and returning web content from URL looks different from one another in URL. For the above URLs, the Web server can return completely different content. When the content of these URL is the same (usually the same), Google needs to select a representative from the above URLs and ignore the rest. Well, URL, which was chosen by Google, is a standardized URL. The process of Google’s choice is called standardization".

how does Google standardize URL?

generally, Google is judged by the quantity of the chain. Using more is standardized URL.

I want to tell Google what I want to do with standardized URL, using 301 redirects for URL standardization.